summer olympics

These do not meet the strict requirements for political sovereignty that other international organisations demand.

[8] The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in mystery and legend;[9] one of the most popular myths identifies Heracles and his father Zeus as the progenitors of the Games. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating. Politics again intervened at Munich in 1972, with lethal consequences. They were reinstated in 1983, 30 years after his death. The IOC does not currently recognise these games as being official Olympic Games, although many historians do.

[77], The Games have also had significant negative effects on host communities; for example, the Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions reports that the Olympics displaced more than two million people over two decades, often disproportionately affecting disadvantaged groups. [34] Zappas sponsored the first Olympic Games in 1859, which was held in an Athens city square. “As there was no exception requested for the Tokyo 2020 candidature, no stakeholders were consulted on Tokyo’s dates,” he said. Competitors from 14 nations (Austria, Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) have participated in all 23 Winter Games to date. Instead, starting in 1928, the Soviets organised an international sports event called Spartakiads. Tokyo 2020,[d] is an international multi-sport event scheduled to take place from 23 July to 8 August 2021 in Tokyo, Japan. A third of the tickets failed to sell,[21] but ticket sales still topped figures from the Seoul and Barcelona Olympics (1988 and 1992). [105] Before the IOC took control of sponsorship, the NOCs had responsibility for negotiating their own contracts for sponsorship and use of the Olympic symbols. No bids from countries in Africa have succeeded. [159] Athletics, swimming, fencing, and artistic gymnastics are the only summer sports that have never been absent from the Olympic programme. In 1988, one such contractor, Giuseppe Zappia "was cleared of fraud charges that resulted from his work on Olympic facilities after two key witnesses died before testifying at his trial. The 1906 Games were officially recognised by the IOC at the time (although not any longer), and no Intercalated Games have been held since. [78] The volunteers at the venues are to be known as "Field Cast", and the volunteers in the city are to be known as "City Cast". Istanbul: 26 The Kenyan constitution required that one renounce their Kenyan citizenship when they became a citizen of another nation. [30] In 1865 Hulley, Brookes and E.G. Javascript must be enabled for the correct page display, The Olympic flame for Tokyo 2020 touched down in Japan to start its 121-day journey around the country, The Olympic flame handover ceremony took place at Athens’ iconic Panathenaic Stadium. The United States has hosted the Summer Olympic Games four times: the 1904 Games was held in St. Louis, Missouri; the 1932 and 1984 Games were both held in Los Angeles, California, and the 1996 Games were held in Atlanta, Georgia. This meeting was held from 16 to 23 June 1894, at the University of Paris. We want to change public attitudes towards disability, celebrate the excellence of Paralympic sport and to enshrine from the very outset that the two Games are an integrated whole. The other nations hosting multiple Winter Games are France with three, while Switzerland, Austria, Norway, Japan, Canada and Italy have hosted twice. In retrospect, the belief that contractors (suspected of being members of the Montreal Mafia) skimmed large sums of money from all levels of contracts while also profiting from the substitution of cheaper building materials of lesser quality, may have contributed to the delays, poor construction and excessive costs. The preparation for these Games was overshadowed by controversies, including the political instability of Brazil's federal government; the country's economic crisis; health and safety concerns surrounding the Zika virus and significant pollution in the Guanabara Bay; and a state-sponsored doping scandal involving Russia, which affected the participation of its athletes in the Games. [13] The boxing qualification tournament was originally planned to be held in Wuhan, China, the centre of the coronavirus outbreak, from 3 to 14 February, but instead took place in Amman, Jordan, at the beginning of March. The IOC established July and August as the months to hold the Summer Olympics in 2000, Noyelle said. The United States did not formally protest against the flag. [150] The next host nation then also briefly introduces itself with artistic displays of dance and theatre representative of its culture. The athletes came from 14 nations, with most coming from Greece.

In 2024, France will host its third Summer Olympic Games in its capital, making Paris the second city ever to have hosted three Summer Olympics. Both athletes were from Dubai's ruling family. NBC paid substantial fees for rights to the Olympics, so the IOC has allowed NBC to influence event scheduling to maximize U.S. television ratings when possible. Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. Figure skating (in 1908 and 1920) and ice hockey (in 1920) were featured as Olympic events at the Summer Olympics. [108] As a result of these changes, a list of eight sports was unveiled on 22 June 2015, consisting of baseball/softball, bowling, karate, roller sports, sport climbing, squash, surfing, and wushu.

As of 12 March 2020[update], the following 153 National Olympic Committees have qualified (other than through universality places in athletics, under which all 206 NOCs may send competitors regardless of qualification). The torch then travelled to Athens, where the Greek leg of the relay culminated in a handover ceremony at the Panathenaic Stadium on 19 March, during which the torch was transferred to the Japanese contingent. [193][194] It was not until the 1956 Summer Games that the Soviets emerged as a sporting superpower and, in doing so, took full advantage of the publicity that came with winning at the Olympics. Changes in plans prevented the new stadium from being completed in time for the 2019 Rugby World Cup as originally intended. For the video game, see, The IOC webpage for the 1900 Summer Olympics, The IOC webpage for the 1904 Summer Olympics, Although the Games of 1916, 1940, and 1944 were cancelled, the Roman numerals for those Games were still applied because the official titles of the Summer Games count the, The IOC webpage for the 1920 Summer Olympics, The IOC webpage for the 1956 Summer Olympics. Miraitowa is named after the Japanese words for "future" and "eternity",[137] and Someity is named after someiyoshino, a type of cherry blossom. The most successful competitor was German wrestler and gymnast Carl Schuhmann, who won four gold medals.

[239] This waiting period exists only for athletes who previously competed for one nation and want to compete for another. © [134] The designs replaced a previous emblem which had been scrapped after allegations that it plagiarized the logo of the Théâtre de Liège in Belgium. Women competed in the steeplechase for the first time. [92] On 23 July 2020 — one year ahead of the rescheduled opening ceremony, a promotional video was released featuring Japanese swimmer Rikako Ikee carrying the flame inside the lantern at Japan National Stadium, drawing comparisons between an emergence from the pandemic and her own return to sport after being diagnosed with leukemia. After the 1988 Games, the IOC decided to make all professional athletes eligible for the Olympics, subject to the approval of the IFs. In his closing address, Jacques Rogge described the Games as "Happy and glorious". IOC spokesman Michael Noyelle said in an email that broadcasters provide their input during the development of the competition schedule after the Olympics dates have been set. Several new events were held, including the new discipline of BMX for both men and women. [35] Thirty thousand spectators attended that Games in 1870, though no official attendance records are available for the 1875 Games. [55][56] The first Summer Youth Games were held in Singapore from 14 to 26 August 2010, while the inaugural Winter Games were hosted in Innsbruck, Austria, two years later. The Olympic Movement is made of three major elements: French and English are the official languages of the Olympic Movement. [114] The IOC sought to gain control of these sponsorship rights. The 1912 Olympic pentathlon and decathlon champion Jim Thorpe was stripped of his medals when it was discovered that he had played semi-professional baseball before the Olympics. This boycott reduced the number of nations participating to 80, the lowest number since 1956.

The Games of 1944 were due to be held in London but were also cancelled; instead, London hosted the first games after the end of the war, in 1948. [13] The myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Thus in July 2016, The Guardian stated that the biggest threat to the future of the Olympics is that very few cities want to host them. A coroner's inquiry found that he was under the influence of amphetamines. [77] Interviews to select the requisite number of volunteers began in February 2019, with training scheduled to take place in October 2019. The city will be the fifth in history to host the Games twice, and the first Asian city to have this title. [76] Moreover, research suggests that hosting the Summer Olympics has a strong positive effect on the philanthropic contributions of corporations headquartered in the host city, which seems to benefit the local nonprofit sector. [241], One of the most famous cases of changing nationality for the Olympics was Zola Budd, a South African runner who emigrated to the United Kingdom because there was an apartheid-era ban on the Olympics in South Africa. The 2020 Summer Olympics (Japanese: 2020年夏季オリンピック, Hepburn: Nisen Nijū-nen Kaki Orinpikku),[b] officially the Games of the XXXII Olympiad[c] and commonly known as


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